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new.gif (197 bytes)Egypt, Turkey and Iran: Exchanging Roles in a tumultuous Middle East Fadi Elhusseini

Another Spring: The Middle East between history of revolts and future geopolitics Fadi Elhusseiny

عولمة الأزمات ، لا أزمة العولمة:أزمة المجتمع العربي بين إنكار الجابري والانفجار الكبير  علاء الدين الاعرجي
Getting an ‘edutainment’ taste in Jarash Marwan Asmar

Islam and Europe: An equal and opposite reaction Eric Walberg
Muslim Brotherhood after the revolution Eric Walberg
مقر الوطني المحترق: الرمز وذاكرة التاريخ أماني أمين
Egypt's First Revolution Sameh Arab
رأيت الله في التحرير سمية يحيى رمضان
الثورة العربيّة الكبرى! هل ستغيّر وجه التاريخ ؟ علاء الدين الأعرجي

“Dolly-birding” the satellite media in the Arab world Marwan Asmar

أحزاب بلا شرعية، وانتخابات بلا ديموقراطية فرانسوا باسيلي
هكذا نحن الآن بعد أربعين عاماً يا ناصر صبحي غندور
الدكتور زويل والدكتور محمد البرادعي وأحلام المصريين فرانسوا باسيلي
مصر "23 يوليو" .. ومصر "كامب ديفيد" صبحي غندور
الابداع والعلمانية فى عهد عبد الناصر فرانسوا باسيلي
عناوين كتبي ليست لي رجب سعد السيد

Namane Abdelghani
Francois Basili 
The Role of Sports in Citizenship Education
Why Egyptians Do Not Rise?
Dr. Khaled Azab The Architect in Islamic Civilization in English
Asem Shehabi The Risks of Food and Water Pollution
Abdou Hikki The Secret Sex Lives of Philosophers
Marwan Asmar Remembering 9/11 in English
Ayed Nabaa Cinematic Duos
Francois Basili  The Night Father Boulos Basili Was Arrested
Mohamed Rabie We Arabs must wage a new form of Jihad?
Francois Basili Om Kolthoum: a journey of glory and Arab decline
Tarek Heggy Religious Education in the Balance
English version    -    Arabic version
Ismail Serageldin Cultural Accumulation and Modern Reading in English
 Emtyaz Mograbi Abdelnasser Amer: Palestinian Color and Art
Sobhi Ghandour The Nasserist Approach We Miss Today
Tarek Heggy The Seven Pillars of Terrorism   in English
Francois Basili King Farouk and the Embelishing of History
Saifedean Ammous The Prince of Poets: Arab Poetry's Answer to American Idol in English
Weam Namou The Benefits of Islam - From a Christian's Perspective in English
Sobhi Ghandour Nasser's Unfulfilled Project 
Parehan Komk Hallucinations over Utopia
John Espositoi Want to Understand Islam? Start Here   in English
Francois Basili Egypt torn between Religious Fervor and Political Alienation
Dr. Afaf Abdelmoati The Nubians in the Egyptian Media  Translated text from Cairo Cosmopolitan
Ayed Nabaa Superficial Documentaries: The Product of Mainstream Television
Irfan Yusuf Bigots shield behind conservative façade   in English
Francois Basili Salah Jaheen: Poet Of the Revolution and Philosopher of the Poor
Dr.Marwan Asmar Political Islam, A Review of the Literature  in English
Mulham Assir Suzanne Klotz's Indispensable Guide to the Holy Land  in English
Mohamed Said Raihani The Arabic Video Clip: What Is And What Can Be
Alaadin Al-Araji Iraq: Heading to the Dustbin of History?
Parehan Komk The Intellectual: The End of Influence
James Bowles Johannes Kepler:Tracing the source of his wisdom to 3000 B.C  in English
Abdelhamid al-Ansari How to genuinely express our support for the Prophet

The Pope's Speech: Perspectives from Jewish, Christian and Muslim Intellectuals
We cannot afford to maintain these ancient prejudices against Islam  Karen Armstrong
Muhammad's Sword  Uri Avnery

Irrational response from Moslems may confirm some of the Pope's accusations Abdelwahab Elefendi  
in Arabic
Dr. Marwan Asmar Israel's war on Lebanon via Hizbollah
Francois Basili  Heikal,King Farouq and Nasser    in Arabic
Ibrahim Awad  Scientific Miracle of the Quran or Naive Observations?  in Arabic
Ragab Saad  Famine: two negative sides of the same coin   in Arabic
Said Salem The West and the Arab Intellectual   in Arabic
Tarek Heggy Collection of 15 Essays 
Walid M. Abdelnasser Dialogue among Civilizations: Dialectics of the Challenge
Sobhi Ghandour The Gamal Abdelnasser Experience  in Arabic
Irfan Yusuf Rumi was no suicide bomber
Maymanah Farhat Iraqi artist Mohammed Al Sadoun explores Middle Eastern history
Maymanah Farhat Mary Tuma: Dancing Girls, Passages and Homes for the Disembodied
Said Abdelwahed Harold Pinter Nobel Prize Winner    in Arabic
Walid Abdelnasser Globalization and Cultural Identity   in Arabic
Alaa Bayoumi Islam in the US   in Arabic
Dr. David Khairallah The Question of Federation  in Arabic
Ahmed Shablool Arabic Poetry between hardcopy and digital  in Arabic
Ragab Saad Al-Sayyed Writing From The Brain-Drained Side
Yasser Shaaban The Warriors Respite   in Arabic
Sobhi Ghandour In Lebanon History Triumphs Over Geography   in Arabic
Dr. Ibrahim Awad In search of Taha Hussein's Appeal   in Arabic
Basil Samara Torture, Imprisonment, and Political Assassination in the Arab Novel
Nidal al-Kadri Women in Patriarchal Societies   in Arabic
Salim el-Hos In defense of Pan Arabism Salim el-Hos responds to Mohamed el-Remehy   in Arabic
Mohammad Younes References To Tyrrany In The Arabian Nights: A Biography Of El-Haggag   in Arabic
Sami Abusalem Photography From A New Technology To Eliminating The Other  in Arabic
Miriam Cooke   Middle East Studies Under Fire
 Dr.Mohamed Mzoughi Heidegger between politics and philosophy in Arabic
El-Sayed Negm The Stream of Events in Epic Novels   in Arabic
Dr. Walid Abdelnasser   The Media and Dialogue among Civilizations
Professor Said Abdelwahed The Notion of Culture   in Arabic
Soad Gabr Short shorts - a critical view  in Arabic
Dr. Amani Amin In both English and Arabic
Electronic Government in Egypt
English version    -    Arabic version
H.H.Pope Shenouda III Islamic Christian dialogue  in Arabic
Dr. Afaf Abdelmoati Translation- Problems and Resolutions  in Arabic
Ragab Saad   Writing for Children  in Arabic
Abir Kobti Butterfly Wings  in Arabic
The Greater Middle East Inititiative: 
Colonial Echoes   Dr. Galal Amin
What must be done   Abdelraouf el-Ridi
Zahed Ezzat Kandinesky's Art and its Revolutionary Vision in Arabic
Dr.Mohamed Ghoneem Ahmed Zaki Pacha master of the Arabic Language in Arabic
Afaf Abdelmoaty  In arabic
In Memory of Abderahman Munif
Mamdouh al-Shaikh In arabic  
The Causes of the West's Animosity towards Islam 
Mohamed Tahhan In arabic
Mercy Killing - The Pain and the Fear
Ziad Shaker el-Jishi In arabic
The Knight who sold his White Horse
Fatma Naoot In arabic
The Other and the Prose Poem
Dina al-Shahwan In arabic 
Edward Said, Unexplored Features
Salah Hassanein Dining in Space
Afaf Abdelmoaty  In arabic 
Edward Said, the Artist and Philosopher 
Ahmed Shablool Eastern Influence in Harry Potter
Arabic Version        English Version
Said Raihani In arabic 
The Arabic Song - in search for Identity
Salah Hassanein The Ugly Face of Discrimination
Salah Hassanein Democracy And Liberty
Hamdy el-Batran In arabic 
Intellectuals armed with Silence
Mohamed Tahhan In arabic
The Arabs and The US
Ahmed Shablool In arabic
Alexandrians & Their New Library
 Hamdy el-Batran In arabic 
Comment on a special event article by Tarek Heggy
Sameh Arab Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Mamdouh al-Shaikh In arabic 
What did Islam add to humanity
Adonis US Policy and the “Theatre of The Macabre”  translation into English by Ramsis Amun
Sobhi Ghandour In arabic 
The US, the Arabs and the Axis of Evil
Khaled Abdallah In arabic 
Fall of Enron
Karim Hussin In arabic 
What do we need?
 
Sobhi Ghandour From America's war on Terrorism to Israel's war on Arabs and Muslims   
Sameh Arab RAMSES THE GREAT
Pharaoh Who Made Peace With His Enemies And The First Peace Treaty In History
   
Habeeb Saloum Averroës - The Great Muslim Philosopher
Who Planted The Seeds of the European Renaissance  
 
Nahed Kharashi In arabic 
The Quran, a recipe for your serenity   
  
Edward Said Adrift in Similarity   
Edward Said Where will Sharon take Israel?
Wael Fawzy In arabic 
The Quran, not only a linguistic miracle but a scientific one 
Dr.Sameh Arab What did Akhnaton suffer from?
An exploration into a 3300 year old medical mystery
el-Sayed Negm In arabic  
Children in Folklore
Ahmad Shablool In arabic  
My Experience with el-Hakim's Beret
Medicine in Ancient Egypt
by Dr.Sameh Arab 
Medicine in Ancient Egypt Part 1 of 3
Medicine in Ancient Egypt Part 2 of 3
Medicine in Ancient Egypt Part 3 of 3
Salah Hassanein The History of Planet Earth
Amani Amin Status of the Book & Paper Press in today's age of the Internet In arabic  
Egypt's Environment Leading scientist and environmentalist Dr.Salah Hassanein sheds the light on Egypt's Environment in a series of Articles.
The River Nile, the Life of Egypt

Air Pollution in Cairo - The Cost
What To Do About the Environmental problems in Egypt  The Challenge

The River Nile, the Life of Egypt

                                 By leading scientist and environmentalist
                                       Dr.Salah Hassanein
                                

 

Looks can be deceiving. The picturesque Nile River, the life of Egypt is becoming a serious hazard to people. Its water is containing a chemical stew of heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs, DDT  and other pesticides, untreated human and animal waste and disease carrying bacteria.
Some came from local industry and farm runoff, some came from industry upstream and some came from all the untreated waste from villages, towns and cities near its banks. Some of the pollutants exceed allowable levels; some don't. For many chemicals, safe, permissible level for exposure is not  known  yet.
In an effort to grow more food and better quality food, to substitute for the rich silt that has been lost after Aswan High Dam, the use of  chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides have increased dramatically. Extensive use of pesticides derived from chlorinated hydrocarbons, like DDT, to combat insects, like Cotton worms, has had disastrous effects on the environment. These organic compounds with halogens (Fluorine or chorine or bromine) in their molecular structures are highly persistent and resist bio-degradation for decades. They are not easily soluble in water, they tend to cling to plant tissues and accumulate in soils, the bottom mud of streams and ponds.
They are easily dispersed in the atmosphere. Carried by wind, especially from aerial spraying which has been going on for the past twenty years, the pesticides are distributed, contaminating people, animals and everything even in areas far removed from agricultural regions. They enter the food chain in the plants that the plant eaters and we consume. They can be also absorbed directly through the skin by such aquatic organisms as fish. The pesticide is further concentrated as it passes from plant eating species to predators. It becomes highly concentrated in the tissues of animals at the end of the food chain. Because of the dangers of pesticides to wildlife and to humans, and because insects have acquired resistance to them, the use of  halogenated hydrocarbons such as DDT has been banned in the Developed  countries like USA & Canada and most of western Europe, although large quantities are still shipped to developing countries. In the early 1980's DDT and other halogenated pesticides like Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) also aroused great concern as a potential carcinogen (cancer causing substance).
Yet to date, The Egyptian Ministry of agriculture, put calls for bids from Swiss and German companies, for pesticides that are banned in the developed countries. The amount purchased is enough to give every man and woman and child in Egypt half to one and half grams a year. Although this may not be enough to be fatal, it is sufficient to cause serious health problems over the years. That is why kidney and liver failure have become epidemic in Egypt. Cancer cases have risen sharply. Roughly, only roughly 1% of the pesticide used is consumed in killing the pests; the rest end up in water and air.
Closely related to DDT is another group of chemical compounds: the poly-chlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. PCBs are one of the most harmful chemicals that can escape into the environment. It was widely used as an insulator and cooling material in electrical transformers and as a plasticiziser in paints, waxes and lubricating oils. Exposure to PCB may result in a range of health problems ranging from skin rash to liver cancer and / or birth defects. For years these compounds have been used in industrial production, and eventually they found their way into the environment. Their impact on humans and animals has been similar to that of pesticides. Because of their extreme toxicity, use of PCBs is now restricted in developed counties. In Egypt, there are tons of  PCBs in electrical transformers that are not well maintained.
Dioxins, or polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins is the most toxic of a group of highly toxic chemical compounds that found its way to the environment in the past forty years. The extent of toxicity of these cancer-causing compounds in humans is still not exactly known. Dioxins may be found as an impurity in wood and paper preservatives and in the effluent from pulp and paper mills and in herbicides such as "Agent Orange" which was used extensively during the Vietnam War as a defoliant.
Two decades ago, there was an explosion of a plant in Italy that caused wide spread contamination of dioxin. Many pregnant women suffered miscarriages and children of the affected mothers were born with several deformities. Dioxins are routinely discharged in the Nile from Cardboard and paper recycling plants in Egypt. These chemicals persist in the food chain for many years, because of the way they accumulate in animal tissue: the chemicals, which the body cannot degrade, tend to lodge in fat; animals feeding at the top of the food chain usually have higher levels because they absorb the chemicals that have accumulated in their prey. Many of these chemicals continue to be used in Egypt and other developing countries. Ninety to ninety-five percent of these harmful chemicals that we absorb, come from the food and water we consume. We now know that many of these chemical pollutants tend to accumulate in animal fat, and the predators and human beings, at the top of the food chain, seem to be getting plenty.
Chemicals such as DDT have been recognized to be toxic to some species and can cause birth defects or reproductive failure among others. Now research indicates that these chemicals, even at lower concentrations, can have other  unexpected effects. Scientists now are looking at how much of this chemical would be required to cause problems rather than how much will kill an animal or human. They call it environmentally relevant amount, which can be much less than the amounts that are normally quoted to pose a danger threshold (serious damage or death). Then they are comparing that with how many humans are getting that amount through eating, drinking, and breathing or skin absorption. Often, they found that we are getting more in our bodies than that environmentally relevant amount. On top of this, we are getting in our bodies several of these harmful chemicals, which makes matters worse. Acting in the earliest stages of a fetus development, these chemicals are believed to affect the hormonal systems, leading to birth defects and behavior abnormalities in animals. It seems reasonable to conclude, then, that these chemicals pose, a threat to humans in the same way they affect animals. After all, we are not so different from other animals. Some scientists believe that the same chemicals might well be pushing our sperm counts down and our cancer rates up.
The cancer rates have been going up. Furthermore it is very likely that these chemicals are affecting the behavior of children who were exposed to them before they were born, even at relatively low levels-levels that their mothers might have had in their bodies during pregnancies. Fetuses -are particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. When a pregnant female breaks down her fat reserves, the chemicals migrate into the fetus, accumulating at concentrations many times per unit weight of the fetus, as the mother's who weighs much more. Once there, they may affect the fetus far more than in an adult. These effects in some cases may not become apparent until many years later when exposed fetus reaches maturity. Even more worrisome are the reports, showing that the chemicals may already be producing subtle changes in memory and behavior in children exposed to them before birth? In some cases researchers found that although the children exposure to PCBs may be considered to be within the range of normal background exposure or safe levels, problems in their development have occurred. Analysis of mother's milk showed more than thirty man made chemicals including pesticides and herbicides that should not be there. Mining & metal industries produce a cocktail of harmful chemicals such as toxic cyanides, heavy metals, mercury, acids ..etc. as a by-product of their processes. Some of these effluents inevitably escape to the environment through leakage or seepage to underground waters. The containment and treatment and environmental regulation and enforcement are often lacking in Egypt. There is also a serious problem from the use of leaded gasoline and the increase in number of cars. There are more than 3 million motor cars in Cairo alone. They are producing lead in the form of Ethyl lead to the atmosphere. Eventually some of this lead is washed to the river with rain and natural dissolution process. Every Egyptian who has blanked gums suffers from some degree of lead poisoning. Lead poisoning causes mental retardation in children and kidney & liver failure after years of exposure. The human body cannot effectively get rid of lead and other heavy metals. Untreated human and animal wastes from hundreds of villages and towns along Nile River are becoming major health hazards to people. Dysentery and gastronomic disease are epidemic in Egypt.
Samples from the River Nile were analyzed in Canada showed Typhoid, dysentery and even few chorea bacteria. Moreover, these wastes strip oxygen from the water affecting aquatic life and causing major problems for navigation because of the plants like Ward El Nil which thrives on them.
Even the underground water has become contaminated from seepage of the surface water. It is estimated that the quality of the river Nile has been deteriorating at a compound rate of two percent a year. That means that in our life time the water from the Nile will not be fit to drink. Bottled water is just filtered water; the process does not remove dissolved heavy metals.
Ask your local hospital in Egypt how they dispose of blood, human organs and used dressings and other bio hazardous waste. I did and I was shocked by the answers. If we don't do something to improve the situation in Egypt we will be condemning many generations of Egyptians to poor health, suffering and many needless deaths.
We really cannot afford to be apathetic. Together we have to raise the awareness as the first step in tackling the problem.

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Who Is Dr. S.Hassanien?

Dr. Salah Hassanien is a 53 year old engineer. He is a leading scientist, environmentalist. and writer.
Graduated as Chemical Engineer from Alexandria University in 1966, he left for Canada shortly after. He has been living and working in Canada for almost 33 years.
He has M.Sc. & Ph.D in Chem.Eng from Canada.
He worked in the Nuclear Generation Industry in Canada for 24 years. Sixteen years of them as the Chief Environmental Engineer.
In the past eight years he has been involved in several capacities in efforts to protect and restore the environment as consultant,executive of non profit organizations for sustainable development.
A writer & author, he has a weekly column in the Beacon Times (a Canadian newspaper).
He is one of the Directors of Sustainable Development Technologies, a Canadian Non profit Organization that works world wide to improve conditions.
He has been closely networking with the leading environmentalists in the world like David Suzuki, Canada, Paul Hawkins, US & Dr. Karl Hinich Roberts in Sweden.
He has been studying & watching the environmental conditions and experiences especially in
the developing world. He worked in several countries in the world as an environmental consultant. Last mission was in disaster relief in Guatemala and Honduras after hurricane Mitch.
He is the first Vice President of district 9 of the International Lions Club and the Director of economic development in Port Elgin & District Chamber of Commerce.

Dr. Salah Hassanien interest is only to serve and share whatever he has in knowledge and experience with others who are willing to improve the environmental conditions in Egypt for the sake of the younger and future generations.

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